• Vulnerable Coastal Infrastructure: As coastlines continue to be developed (such as housing and wharves) and the sea level continues to rise, erosion and flooding will increase in frequency if we don’t take measures to adapt.
  • Changes to Coastline Geography: Erosion happens on more vulnerable coastlines: sand dunes, sand and pebble beaches, or weakly supported bedrock or sediment bluffs. Sea-level rise exacerbates storm impacts, and accelerates coastal erosion.  This has already happened along Nova Scotia’s coast.
  • Flooding: Storm surges are also likely to flood new areas, and may affect agricultural dyke lands like those found in the Bay of Fundy area.


  • Track the Risks:  Produce vulnerability maps of coastal ecosystems, communities, infrastructure and buildings at risk.
  • Begin a Planned Retreat: creating setback lines where no permanent structures can be built and where existing structures are eventually abandoned or moved.
  • Accommodate:  retrofitting or building structures that can withstand coastal impacts (e.g. using concrete stilts), building facilities near the shore only out of necessity, like ports or fish plants and prohibiting other coastal development.
  • Protect: physical reinforcement of the shoreline with hard measures (e.g. seawalls, rip-rap, and groynes) or soft measures (e.g. vegetating dunes with marram grass).